The soybean is one of the richest and cheapest sources of protein and is a staple in the diets of people and animals in numerous parts of the world. The seed contains 17 percent oil and 63 percent meal, 50 percent of which is protein. Because soybeans contain no starch, they are a good source of protein for diabetics.
One of the most widely grown crops, canola plants produce beautiful small yellow flowers which develop into pods, resembling pea pods. Each pod contains tiny black seeds, made up of about 45% oil. Once harvested, canola seeds are crushed to release the oil contained within the seed.
Rice polish is a by-product of rice obtained in the milling operation of brushing the grain to polish the kernel.The oil content of rice polish varies from 13-19%. The crude protein ranges from 13-16% and TDN from 70-90% depending on the oil content. Rice polish supplies as much TDN as maize. It is a good source of proteins, energy, vitamins and minerals. It also contains better assortment of amino acids, particularly lysine and methionine, compared to other cereal grains, including maize and wheat. The phosphorus content is high (1.30%) and calcium content is low. Though much of the phosphorus exists as phytate phosphorus, rumen microorganism can digest phytate phosphorus.
Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.
Corn, soybeans, wheat, barley, oats, and
other grains are commonly used as ingredients in animal feed.
· Protein meals: Soybean meal, canola meal,
cottonseed meal, and other protein meals are used to provide protein and other
essential nutrients in animal feed.
· Fatty acids: Fish meal, fish oil, and other
sources of fatty acids are used in feed to provide energy and improve feed
· Vitamins and minerals: Premixes of vitamins and
minerals, such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus, are added to
feed to improve nutrition.